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But they are in the way of the white planters. First, they want the country, second, they see their existence endangered by the fact that more and more black slaves are fleeing to the Seminoles.
The northern sawmill owner Moore, married to a Seminolin, is for peaceful agreement and against slavery - because he believes he can make better profit with free wage workers.
Plantation owner Raynes, however, is in favor of a military strike. Chief Osceola recognizes the danger and tries to avoid the provocations of the whites.
But he cannot prevent the outbreak of war The whites have added a new means to the violent displacement of the Indians. They sell their land to them with sales contracts and thereby push them more and more into the sterile western areas.
Governor Harrison of Indiana is the greediest. In order to stop him, Shawnee chief Tecumseh tries to unite the Indians. He succeeds in founding a tribal union that declares the Indian land to be unsaleable common property.
Chiefs who still sell are killed. Harrison raided the headquarters of Tecumseh's followers in The survivors flee to Canada and join the English who are at war with America, the so-called Second War of Independence.
The Indians, Tecumseh in the uniform of a brigade general, are abandoned by the inferior English and defeated by the Americans in a battle.
In order to make the escape and resistance of the Indians impossible, the horses are requisitioned. Chief White Feather decides to bring the horses back.
He disguises himself as a harmless fisherman and is arrested by the army. He is very welcome as a scout to the whites and is put in the herd of horses to be driven to Fort Lapwei - by only seven soldiers.
But among them is a clever sergant who becomes a strong adversary. With Cunning, White Feather succeeds in snatching the horses from the army weakened by other battles.
The deposits of precious metals have also brought the American geologist Johnson on the scene. He wants the land and wages a massacre among the Indians in the Santa Rita settlement with an army cannon.
He also receives a huge premium for the scalp. Few Indians have survived and escaped, including Chief Ulzana. According to tribal laws, they persecute the killer to take revenge.
Running time: 90 min. It is a profitable crop and they can trade the surpluses. The Tucson businessmen and settlers fear for their profits, especially the men from the "Tucson Ring" who collect the money donated by the government to supply the Indians and provide them with spoiled food.
They attack and blow up the irrigation system. Chief Ulzana is wounded, the whites consider him dead and want to drive the mimbrenos to a sterile reserve.
When Ulzana tries to free her, she is shot. He worked for the whites, saved his money and now wants to buy a piece of land to start a new life.
However, the situation in the village has deteriorated dramatically. Raids on Indians and white settlers take place, cattle are stolen.
Someone is trying to incite Indians and settlers against each other. Severino decides to stay and stand for peaceful coexistence with the whites.
He gives his money for the purchase of the Indian country and finds a partner in the girl Maruja, but her grandfather, chief Nicolas, is for struggle.
Severino wins fellow campaigners among the Indians and discovers that a band of bandits is fueling the conflict between the Indians and the Whites.
Running time: 78 min. Year of production: "Falcon Trail" Runtime: min. Year of production: "Blood brothers" Running time: 94 min.
Year of production: Running time: 86 min. Year of production: "Deadly Fallacy" Running time: 93 min.
Year of production: "Osceola" Runtime: min. Year of production: "Tecumseh" Runtime: min. Year of production: "Apache" Running time: 90 min.
Urkunden eines deutschen Ingenieurs Tropics, The myth of travel is an important early example of a German exotic novel. See also Indian brave.
Prior to European contact, the Native American population is estimated to have been in the millions. But , the population had been severely impacted by genocide, warfare and disease brought by the colonists.
The destruction of communities and culture gave rise to the idea of the "Vanishing Indian". Friedrich Nietzsche 's popular, The Gay Science praised endurance of pain as a prerequisite of true philosophy.
Nietzsche drew parallels between his ideas of contemporary Indians and his preference for Pre-Socratic philosophy and "pre-civilized", "pre-rational" thinking.
The German approach was somewhat different from the Social Darwinism taking place in the majority of American society at the time, [ citation needed ] as the German stereotypes were more idealized than denigrating.
However, Americans have also perpetrated the same, problematic idealization in a parallel tradition of Playing Indian - simultaneously mimicking stereotypical ideas and imagery of "Indians" and "Indianness", while also dismissing, and making invisible real, contemporary Indian people.
Stefan George , a charismatic networker and author, saw and studied Indians as role models of his own cosmogony , using ecstatic and unmediated experiences to provide a sacred space for himself and his disciples.
George has been quoted with "Nietzsche may have known the Greek philosophers, but I am aware about the Red Indians". Both their own comrades and the enemy shared the stereotypical image of them as a "vanishing race" but with a strong warrior spirit.
German soldiers feared Indian snipers , messengers and shock troops and the Allied troops were already using Indian languages via " windtalkers " to encode open communication.
By , the Indigenous population in the USA had risen to about , Johnny Cash 's recording of The Ballad of Ira Hayes , which commemorates the Pima soldier of the title who was one of the six men who raised the American flag on Iwo Jima , also became popular in Germany.
Veterans are highly honored in most Native American communities, and many who serve in tribal government are veterans.
There was a widespread cultural passion for Native Americans in Germany throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. A popular theme of Indianthusiasm novels under the Second Reich were stories of German immigrants settling in rugged places such as the wilderness of Canada, where Auslandsdeutschtum "Germanness abroad" served as a civilizing force that tamed the wilderness while also simultaneously offered up a very romanticized picture of the First Nations of Canada as "noble savages".
Imagery of Native Americans was appropriated in Nazi propaganda and used both against the US and to promote a " holistic understanding of Nature" among Germans, which gained widespread support from various segments of the political spectrum in Germany.
During the German Autumn in , an anonymous text by a leftist Göttinger Mescalero spoke positively of the murder of German attorney general Siegfried Buback and used the positive image of Stadtindianer Urban Indians within the radical left.
After , the "Wild West" of the 19th century became a historical zone in German popular imagination where it was the victors in World War II who were committing genocide.
In East Germany, there were so many films devoted to the subject of the Indians that the term Indianerfilme was coined to describe the genre.
More recently, Indianthusiasm has been linked to the rise of environmentalism in Germany, where the traditional lifestyles of the Indians is portrayed in a romantic manner as superior to modern industrial civilization of the West.
The open-air theatre was laid out in , inspired by the ideas of the Thingspiele movement, which was active in the early stages of the Nazi period.
The Communist East German government had major problems with the mixed heritage of May's works: his strong Christian leanings and his broad support, including on the political right.
His books were not available for a long time, and "indianistic" reenactors were closely monitored by the security forces.
Some prominent communist philosophers, such as Karl Marx ' friend and sponsor Friedrich Engels , had used Native American tribal structures as examples for theories on family, private property, and the state.
In West Germany May's heritage was less problematic; both the books and the festivals were soon copied and reprinted.
The Federal Republic experienced some aspects of an idealized Indian image during the Protests of and the related generation and in the founding phase of Die Grünen and NGOs like Greenpeace , which have a strong influence in Germany.
Cultural critics tended to depict Indians positively to criticize Western society while conflicts of and with actual Native Americans over issues such as fur hunting, slavery , forest fire triggering, non-sustainable practices such as buffalo jumps , seal clubbing and whaling were neglected.
The positive image, however, also influenced the self-image of actual Indians. Native American hobbyism in Germany , also called Indian Hobbyism , or Indianism , is the performance and attempt at historical reenactment of the American Indian culture of the early contact period, rather than the way contemporary Indigenous peoples of the Americas live.
This is done by non- Natives as a hobby and pastime, such as for a weekend retreat, hobbyist pow wow , or summer camp. According to the history laid out in H.
Glenn Penny's Kindred By Choice ,  many Germans identify their roots as tribes that lived independently of one another that were colonized by Romans and forced to become Christians.
Because of this distant tribal background and history of colonization, and in fact all ancient Europeans lived tribally at some point in their history, many of these Germans identify with Native Americans more than European nations in contemporary times.
These Germans are also interested in depiction of Native Americans in art and anthropology. Penny also details how Germans often denounced the violence inflicted upon Native peoples by the United States government.
Another factor in the popularity of Hobbyism in Germany can be attributed to the many Wild West shows that toured throughout Germany and featured real Native Americans in stereotypical "cowboy and Indian" performances.
German Hobbyism is generally believed to have been largely popularized by the dime-store novelist Karl May , whose fictional Apache warrior character, Winnetou , and his German blood-brother, Old Shatterhand , adventure throughout the Wild West.
In one of the many novels, Winnetou is murdered and Old Shatterhand avenges him and ultimately becomes an Apache chief. The Winnetou novels were first published in the s.
The first such hobbyist club was the Cowboy Club founded in Munich in Katrin Sieg's Ethnic Drag discusses the differences between West German Hobbyism and East German Hobbyism, saying that while West Germany could continue to openly participate in the hobby, East Germans had to go underground for fear of being targeted as rebels.
This translated to a difference in opinion between East and West in how they interacted with real Native Americans; East German hobbyist clubs often interacted with Native Americans and supported them in their issues financially.
On the other hand, West Germans often avoided contact with real Native Americans, which Sieg surmises is because they feared being told they are not truly Native American.
These patterns continue to be true today. Dakota academic Philip Deloria theorizes in his book Playing Indian that there are two types of Hobbyism—people Hobbyism and item Hobbyism.
The East German interest in having hobbyists start engaging with living Native Americans may be partially attributable to the fact that the East German government began to recognize the propaganda value; criticism of the historical treatment of American Indians could be used as an example of why East Germans citizens should criticize US policies in general.
May's novels featuring Winnetou and Old Shatterhand have been adapted into both theatrical and film productions in German-speaking countries.
It is believed that film adaptations of Karl May's characters in the s may have saved the West German film industry.
German Hobbyism continues today in the form of festivals, museums, pow wows, theater, and clubs. Hobbyists that organize through the means of a club host pow wows and teach each other and communities about Native American culture.
The topic of German Hobbyism has become more recently documented by mainstream news sources New York Times , the Huffington Post , and independent filmmakers such as Howie Summers, who created a short documentary titled Indianer that explores German Hobbyists and their fascinations.
He described the participants as wearing as many "breastplates, bear claw necklaces, feathers and bone jewelry as they seemed able to physically support," and that the attendees also wore Native American costumes in addition to the hobbyist dancers.
In , it was estimated that between 40,, Germans are involved in Indianer hobbyist clubs at any given moment. During this time, we live in tipis, we wear only Indian clothes.
We don't use technology and we try to follow Indian traditions. In two weeks, every tribe can fight each other.
We don't know when somebody will attack or when they will come to steal our horses. And the battles are always exciting, too. I really enjoy them".
The main criticism of German Hobbyism by Native American journalists and academics argues on the basis of cultural appropriation and misrepresentation of Native American cultures and identities.
Deloria dubs it "playing Indian," which he defines as the adoption or portrayal of being Native by Anglo-American individuals. These actions are often motivated by hobby and sometimes financial gain.
Further, Deloria writes that these individuals and groups who play Indian build a collectivity in their performance of otherness, which in turn defines their own identity through the distinction of playing the national " other.
Katrin Sieg applies the thoughts and ideas of Deloria to the performance studies field in Germany. Her book Ethnic Drag discusses the ways in which Germans have historically dressed up as "othered" peoples, which includes Jews , Native Americans, and Turks.
While the portrayals of Jews and Turks were largely negative stereotypes, the portrayal of Native Americans differed in that they were seen as heroic and noble.
The first Native American women's theater troupe known as Spiderwoman Theater traveled to Germany and Europe in order to perform a satire of the European and particularly German fascination with Native Americans.
According to Spiderwoman Theater, it was an act of resistance meant to reclaim their identity as real Native Americans. In , a Canadian Ojibwe painter Ahmoo Allen Angeconeb visited West Germany where he discovered his paintings were selling better than in Canada, looking for a chance to exhibit his work.
So when they found out I was Ojibewe they had no idea who the Ojibewe were. We weren't Plains Indians, so therefore we weren't "real Indians" And then, they seem to have this romantic view that they didn't want to have altered.
I was too "real" an Indian for them. They wanted to keep their romantic view; they didn't want to hear about the modern way of living for Ojibewe people here.
That we lived in wooden-structure homes, that we drove cars". Red Haircrow has written articles from Berlin , where he resides, regarding the controversial aspects of Hobbyism from the perspective of a real Native American.
Haircrow has traveled to pow wows and reported to Indian Country Today Media Network about his experience as a Native American at an event in which Germans performed Native American identity.
He reported the premiere of the blockbuster remake The Lone Ranger , in which Hobbyists were hired to perform as Native Americans in Berlin.
The scalps were not returned to the Ojibwe nation as requested, but they were removed from display. Haircrow also notes that not every Native American has a negative view of the German fascination with their culture.
Comanche Laura Kerchee, who was stationed in Germany with the U. Air Force , told him that "she was impressed with how enthralled the Germans there were by Native Americans.
They realize that this is an opportunity to promote understanding and education and a way to market Native culture to a highly sympathetic audience.
Loving in the Wrong Way" focuses more Native perspectives on Indian hobbyism, cultural appropriation and the connection to racism and continuing colonial practices in Germany,   won the Audience Award at the Refugees Welcome Film Festival in Berlin, Germany in In the United States, there is a widespread criticism from Native Americans about the misappropriation and misrepresentation of Native American identity and culture.
Examples include the Native American mascot controversy , backlash against artists such as Gwen Stefani and Lana Del Rey who have performed in feather war bonnets , and campaigns to educate the public about not wearing Native American costumes for Halloween and themed parties, such as My Culture Is Not a Costume.
This same sentiment was expressed by Haircrow's son, who claimed that "they are stealing from others, but don't want to admit it.
That's why they didn't want us there, because they know we know what they are doing is wrong. The actor responds that he does not believe they would be offended.
This person shares his discomfort with seeing a burial dance take place in the Bad Segeberg performance, and calls it grotesque and claims that it perpetuates a stereotypical image of the Native American.
Journalist James Hagengruber discussed German hobbyists in an article for Salon's website, describing the occasional clashes between the German fantasists and actual Native Americans.
Visiting Native American dancers were shocked when German hobbyists protested their use of microphones and details of their costumes to which they counter-protested.
A hobbyist profiled in the article defended the German tendency to focus on Indian culture before , instead of engaging with issues that affect contemporary tribes, comparing it to studying "the [ancient] Romans.
Journalist Noemi Lopinto in her article for UTNE reports that an Ojibwe man named David Redbird Baker found the performance of sacred ceremonies in Germany to be offensive: "They take the social and religious ceremonies and change them beyond recognition.
The specific image of Indians originated earlier than May's writings. Already in the 18th century a specific German view on the fate of Native Americans can be found in various travel reports and scientific excursions.
In —18, the poet Adelbert von Chamisso took part in a tour around the world led by Otto von Kotzebue and met native people in Latin and Northern America.
Christian Gottlieb Prieber, a lawyer and political utopian from Zittau , emigrated to North America in and lived with the Cherokee in Tennessee.
Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied , a nobleman and scientist, traveled from to to Brazil and from to to North America, accompanied by the Swiss painter Karl Bodmer.
Karl Postl — wrote various novels about his experiences in the US between and , using the pseudonym Charles Sealsfield. Similarly to Friedrich Gerstäcker , he wrote about Tecumseh and provided a more realistic picture than previous authors.
Fritz Steuben 's Tecumseh novels were bestsellers in the s. After some Nazi allegations had been erased, the novels were reprinted — and sold well again — in the s.
Klaus Dill —  was a well known illustrator of German books about Native Americans. Bavarian musician Willy Michl describes himself as an " Isar Indian".
Franz Kafka 's short short story just one sentence "Wish to become an Indian" "Wunsch, Indianer zu werden" was published in .
If one were only an Indian, instantly alert, and on a racing horse, leaning against the wind, kept on quivering jerkily over the quivering ground, until one shed one's spurs, for there needed no spurs, threw away the reins, for there needed no reins, and hardly saw that the land before one was smoothly shorn heath when horse's neck and head would be already gone.
In a speech delivered in the United States in English, Lutz declared: "For over two hundred years Germans have found Indianer so fascinating that even today an Indian iconography is used in advertising.
Indian lore is profitable and marketable, as some Native Americans travelling in Germany may arrest There is a marked Indian presence in German everyday culture, even down to the linguistic level, where sentences like ein Indianer weint nicht an Indian doesn't cry , ein Indianer kennt keinen Schmerz an Indian braves pain or figures such as der letzte Mohikaner the Last of the Mohicans have become part of the everyday speech".
The descendants of the founders of New Braunfels and Fredericksburg in Texas claim that their peace treaty with the local natives, the Meusebach—Comanche Treaty of , has never been broken.
Prominent German-Americans with a certain role in the image-building of Native Americans include the painters Albert Bierstadt — and Louis Maurer — Important contribution in the humanities include anthropologist Franz Boas — and Native American Renaissance writer Louise Erdrich bornDies Rainbow Anime dann Majimoji Rurumo unseren Artikeldetails angegeben. Werden die Schwestern sich und ihre Familie jemals wiedersehen? Gold Thomas Arslan 0 Sterne. Jetzt anmelden Anonym bewerten. Aber Indianer bleiben. Schon beim Bauer Sucht Frau Christa werden Daten an Dritte übertragen — siehe i. Diskussion tvforen. Ostermontag, 9. Ist besser so Willi Schrade jeder, dem Deine Neigung zur provokant-aggressiven Verkündung inkoheränter eigener Meinungen sauer aufstösst, zieht sich gleich resigniert zurück